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Balloon Note

A note calling for periodic payments which are insufficient to fully amortize the face amount of the note prior to maturity, so that a principal sum known as a "balloon" is due at maturity.

Balloon Payment

The unpaid principal amount of a loan due on a specific date in the future. Usually the amount that must be paid in a lump sum at the end of the term.


One who is adjudicated a bankrupt by a court having proper jurisdiction. The bankruptcy may be voluntary (petitioned by the bankrupt) or involuntary (petitioned by the creditors of the bankrupt).


Proceedings under federal bankruptcy statutes to relieve a debtor (bankrupt) from insurmountable debt. The bankrupt's property is distributed by the court to the creditors as full satisfactions of the debts, in accordance with certain priorities and exemptions. Voluntary bankruptcy is petitioned by the debtor for, involuntary by the creditors.

Before And After Method

An appraisal method used in both condemnation and modernization. In condemnation the method is used in a partial taking. The value of the total land owned by A, for example, is $1.00 per sq. ft. After a partial taking, the remaining land of A is worth $.75 per sq. ft. A should receive $1.00 per sq. ft. for the property taken plus $.25 per sq. ft. for the remaining parcel. In the event the remaining property is worth $1.25 after the taking (increased value), the payment to A could be less than the value of the property taken. In modernization, an appraiser may take the value of property before and after remodeling to determine if the value increased more than modernization costs.


The Person who is entitled to receive funds of property under the terms and provisions of a will, trust, insurance policy or security instrument. In connection with a mortgage loan the beneficiary is the lender.

Bill Of Sale

An instrument by which title to personal property is transferred or conveyed.


Also known as accelerated mortgages. Biweeklies reduce interest expense and build home equity faster than monthly payments.

Blanket Mortgage

(1) A mortgage covering more than one property of the mortgagor, such as a mortgage covering all the lots of a builder in a subdivision. (2) A mortgage covering all real property of the mortgagor, both present and future. When used in this meaning it is also called a "general mortgage".

Bona Fide Purchaser

A purchaser in good faith, for valuable consideration, without notice or knowledge of adverse claims of others. Sometimes abbreviated B.F.P.

Book Depreciation

Depreciation reserved (on the books) by an owner for future replacement or retirement of an asset.


A part of a city, having authority over certain local matters. The best-known boroughs are the five boroughs of New York City.

Breach Of Warranty

In real property, the failure of the seller to pass title as either expressed or implied (by law) in the conveyancing document.

Broker, Real Estate

One who is licensed by the state to carry on the business of dealing in real estate. A broker may receive a commission for his or her part in bringing together a buyer and seller, landlord and tenant, or parties to an exchange.

Building And Loan Association

An organization for the purpose of accumulating a fund by subscription and savings of its members, to assist them with loans for building or purchasing real estate.


A payment to the lender from the seller, buyer, third party, or some combination of these, causing the lender to reduce the interest rate during the early years of a loan. The buy-down is usually for the first 1 to 5 years of the loan.

Buy-Sell Offer

An offer by one owner of a business or real estate to buy out the interest of another owner of the same business or real estate (a partner or other shareholder), or to sell the offerer's interest at the same price or proportionate price if unequal ownership. Example: A and B each own a 112 interest in lot 1. A offers to buy B's interest for $10,000 or to sell A's interest to B for $10,000. Theoretically very fair, since B has the option to buy or sell. However, B's interest may be worth $12,000, but B is financially unable to buy A's interest (also worth $12,000).

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